UTJECAJ ZARAZNIH BOLESTI NA STAROVJEKOVNU PLOVIDBU I POKUŠAJI ZAŠTITE PREKO ODREDABA NAJSTARIJIH ZAKONIKA
This article describes the influence of infectious diseases on ancient maritime navigation and the early attempts to prevent their spread with legal regulations. In ancient times, the greatest health hazard for sailors were poor hygienic conditions, , water supply, nutrition, accommodation, air, and lighting on board. These conditions favoured the development and transmission of infectious diseases. The oldest legal attempts to regulate maritime navigation and indirectly improve health conditions on board are found in the Code of Bilalama from the beginning of the 20th century BC and in the Babylonian Code of Hammurabi from the 18th century BC. The first regulations dealing with infectious diseases are found in the Book of Leviticus, 59 altogether, which are later also found in the Bible. The Rhodian maritime law from the 7th to 9th century AD also contains health regulations on accommodation on board and defines minimum water requirements. Greek and Roman vessels were the first to take physicians on board.
Key words: Ancient period, history of maritime navigation, maritime medicine, infectious disease, Code of Hammurabi, Book of Leviticus, Rhodian maritime law.