SANITARY CONDITIONS IN THE AUSTROHUNGARIAN WAR HARBOUR POLA (PULA, CROATIA) IN 1916-17: FOUNDATION OF THE HYGIENIC INSTITUTE
Since 1850 the town of Pola (today Pula, Croatia) underwent big changes and growth due to its transformation into the principal military port of Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Besides the Admiralty that governed the naval actions, the harbor was supported by different organizations needed for normal functioning of the harbor. One of this organizations was Naval Technical Committee (Marine Technisches Komitee), founded in 1874 with the purpose of solving the technical and technological issues related to the navy. The outbreak of World War I (WWI) posed new challenges for Europe. Thus, on February 29th 1916, the Hygienic Institute was founded in the harbor area and Dr. Karl Cafasso was appointed as the first director. The purpose of the Institute was to provide scientific and professional aid to the Head of the Medical Corps of the Ports’ Board (Kriegs-Hafenkommando) in the field of epidemiology, microbiology, social medicine and hygiene, the main fields of public health even today. By the end of the war, the Institute ceased its activity, and similar was founded only in 1938, under Italian rule and has been developed to the present Institute of Public Health.
Key words: World War I; Hygienic Institute; Pula (Pola); sanitary conditions.